Table 1. Epidemiological examples of childhood resistance to infectious and non‐infectious injury
DisorderChild vs. adult differenceChild age rangeAdult age rangeMetricaReferences
Historic data
1918 Pandemic flu176.2 vs. 786.55–1420–34DP100KLinder and Grove (1947)
Tuberculosis30.3 vs. 206.95–1420–34DP100KLinder and Grove (1947)
Measles0.05 vs. 0.55–15> 20CFRBurnet (1952)
Yellow fever144 vs. 7596–1521–60DP100KCanela Soler et al (2009)
Typhoid fever5 vs. 255–15> 20CFRBurnet (1952)
Plague7 vs. 286–10> 16DRRussell (1948)
Modern data
Ebola

57 vs. 81

60 vs. 72.5

5–15

5–15

20–60

> 16

CFR

Rosello et al (2015)

Team et al (2015)

H1N1 2009

0.01 vs. 0.08

1.7 vs. 5.0

5–14

0–17

25–64

18–64

DHR

DP100K

Van Kerkhove et al (2011)

Shrestha et al (2011)

Group A strep sepsis2.6 vs. 18< 1319–96CFRMegged et al (2006)
Staphylococcal sepsis2 vs. 25< 16> 16CFR

Denniston and Riordan (2006)

Laupland et al (2008)

Sepsis0.9 vs. 14.55–1425–54DP100KMelamed and Sorvillo (2009)
Sepsis (with co‐morbidities)16.0 vs. 27.65–1420–59CFRAngus et al (2001)
Sepsis (without co‐morbidities)6.3 vs. 12.85–1420–59CFRAngus et al (2001)
Severe malaria6.1 vs. 26.7≤ 1021–50CFRDondorp et al (2008)
Trauma (MOF)17 vs. 35< 16> 16CFRCalkins et al (2002)
Acute chest syndrome (sickle cell)1.1 vs. 4.3< 20> 20CFRVichinsky et al (1997)
Candidemia

10.1 vs. 30.2

15.8 vs. 30.6

< 16

< 18

≥ 16

> 18

CFR

CFR

Blyth et al (2009)

Zaoutis et al (2005)

Invasive pneumococcus infection3.8 vs. 21.5< 1314–106CFRRahav et al (1997)
Chicken pox

1.3 vs. 21.3

0.4 vs. 1.6

5–14

5–14

≥ 20

15–44

CFR

CFR

Meyer et al (2000)

Joseph and Noah (1988)

Pneumonia2.5 vs. 9.45–1420–64CFRTornheim et al (2007)
  • This table shows the difference in mortality between children and adults for a variety of infectious diseases and types of injury. The age range identified as “child” or “adult” varied across the studies. When age was more narrowly stratified for children and adults, an average mortality rate was calculated based on the age ranges of 5–12 and 20–60, respectively.

  • a CFR, Case fatality rate; DP100K, Deaths per 100,000; DHR, Deaths to hospitalization ratio.