Table 1. Summary of subject characteristics and clinical information
Subject characteristics (all male)ASDcontrol
AD77
PDD‐NOS10
TD41
Othera14
Age in years – mean (SD)2.3 (0.7)2.7 (0.7)
Mullen scales of early learning (T‐scores) – mean (SD)
Visual reception39.7 (11.0)53.55 (9.65)
Fine motor37.3 (12.2)55.85 (8.75)
Receptive language29.1 (12.0)49.65 (98.4)
Expressive language29.1 (11.4)50 (8.7)
Early learning composite71.0 (16.2)104.6 (11.9)
Autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS)b mean (SD)
ADOS CoSo/SA score15.0 (3.9)3.1 (2.7)
ADOS RRB score4.1 (1.9)0.4 (0.8)
ADOS total score19.1 (4.7)3.6 (3.2)
Vineland scores (VABS)c82.2 (9.4)97 (8.45)
  • a  > Toddlers from “Other” category included language delay (= 9), radiological abnormality (= 1), premature birth but tests within the normal range on standardized tests (= 2), socially emotionally delayed (= 1), and prenatal drug exposure (= 1).

  • b All toddlers received either the Toddler Module or Module 1 or 2, depending on age and verbal ability at time of testing. Sample: 64% of ASD population had ADOS T, 31% had ADOS Mod. 1, and 5% had ADOS Mod. 2.

  • c Adaptive Behavioral Scales Adaptive Behavior Composite Score.