Table 1. Mutations identified in the evolved E. coli strains
StrainTypeGenePositionaMutation or changeComments
G500SNPybcS577 278443G→TDLP12 prophage lysozyme
SNPynfL1 666 765852A→CNeutralNeutral Ala→Ala substitution
SNPpykF1 754 158437T→APyruvate kinase I
SNPrpoB4 180 8431576C→Tβ Subunit of RNA polymerase
O500Amp606 179–614 7178.5 kbp12 × AmplificationIncludes fepA, entD, fes, hokE, ybdZ
SNPproV2 802 89458C→TPremature stopproVWX osmoprotectant transporter
InsyijO4 146 344−4151 bpPromoter, IS5 ins.Putative transcriptional regulator
SNPrpoB4 180 9721705A→Cβ Subunit of RNA polymerase
B500SNPacrA483 876968A→TComponent of multidrug efflux pump
SNPfepA, entD611 871−154G→TPromoter, fepA‐entD operonEnterobactin‐iron transport
SNPmarC1 616 292641A→CInner membrane protein
SNPrpoB4 181 3992132A→Gβ Subunit of RNA polymerase
H500SNPrsxD1 707 591426G→TMember of the rsxABCDGE cluster, encoding the soxR reducing system
SNPccmD2 293 421188G→TIntegral membrane protein
SNPkatG4 131 777−81C→TPromoterBifunctional hydroperoxidase I
SNPrpoB4 181 1291862C→Aβ Subunit of RNA polymerase
P500InsevgS2 485 6833288>1334, bpIS3 insertionMembrane sensor‐histidine kinase
Amp≈3 617 000–3 764 000≈147 kbp2 × AmplificationIncludes Acid Fitness Island (13 gens); contained between homologous rhsB and rhsA genes
Delrph3 813 96460982 bpRibonuclease PH
InsyjjM4 593 80075>1424, bpIS186 insertionPredicted transcriptional regulator
  • Abbreviations: Amp, amplification; Del, deletion; Ins, insertion; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism.

  • a Positions are shown according to the MG1655 reference genome map and relative to the translational start of the genes.